Safety Performance Indicators (A start-up's safety manager's Point of view)
An SPI is a safety parameter that can be used to measure the level of safety performance achieved .
Refer to ICAO Safety Management Manual, It is defined as a measure used to express the level of Safety Performance achieved in a system. SPIs are generally expressed in terms of the frequency of occurrences of some events causing harm.
A set of indicators should also include leading indicators.
These indicators don’t require a safety event to take place and are metrics that provide information of the current situation that may affect future performance.
- There are two types of SPIS :
· -Low-consequence Indicators : they include incidents, deviations, other hazardous instances, and are usually referred to as proactive or predictive indicators.
· - High Consequence indicators : Serious incidents or accidents, and are referred to as reactive indicators.
SPIs help make a Safety Manager’s job easier. How ? Instead of making abstract interpretations about how saftey is progressing in your organization, you can use concrete quantitative measures to make informed decisions.
SPIs make it easy to evaluate your safety progress. If you consistently track and monitor the same elements, it will be simple to identify trends over time , especially when using a digital platform to automate this process. You can quickly see whether the changes you have made, have had the desired effect.
In addition to that , having statistics readily available helps you keep tabs on performance and potential warning signs, which in turn will help you make decisions faster more effectively.
You need to asseess your operational safety performance ? :
Safety Performance indicators are used to assess operational safety performance through monitoring.
It’s up to to the safety manager to select more active indicators, such as the number of safety meetings held, or internal training events conducted. Safety Managers can also set target and alert SPI values together with Department Management or colleagues to monitor and improve safety performance.
Example of common SPIs that can be used in different Air Operators :
-Number of audit activities per year , Number of findings per audit, Number of repeat findings, documented supervisor observation (Ops & Maintenance), Number of safety reports received , number of new risk controls validated, number of changes for which a formal safety risk assessment has been performed, number of safety communications published, number of saftey risk management training performed, number of traffic collision avoidance system TCAS resolution advisories, Number of runway incursions, Number of GPWS warnings, Number of low fuel events, Number of fuel calculation erros, Number of excursions or reduced rest periods to fligt duty periods, Number of weight and balance errors , Number of rejected "Take Offs".
When it comes to a start-up airline , with 0 flight hours and you have to submit yout Safety Management Manual to the CAA for review and approval , make sure that you include in the "Safety Performance Measurement" part of the manual , standard SPIs such as the ones mentioned above, or try to look for a company similar to yours ( complexity , activity , fleet ) , so that you set "realistic" and " measurable" SPIs .